Following a short review of the major trends that characterize the globalization process at the economic, political-ideological and socio-cultural levels, this article takes a look at the rationality of agricultural cooperatives and reflects on the effects of globalization. Understanding globalization as a dialectical process, my reflection will draw on the effects of globalization on cooperatives, in particular agricultural ones. I am referring to the threats, challenges and opportunities brought about by globalization. This means evaluating the threats and opportunities that result essentially from increased competition, trade liberalization and changes in the role of the Nation-sates. The article ends with some conclusive remarks.