Few researches in Brazil have undertaken the issue of quantification and qualification of public expenditure in S&T and Innovation devoted to agriculture and livestock. This paper presents an innovative evaluation and provides inedited information for public and private decision makers. Expenditure undertook by 48 Brazilian research organizations was evaluated. This set of organizations comprised the universe of federal and state institutes and agencies, as well as some other non-profit organizations, which gave support to research in agriculture and livestock. The results showed that the role played by Embrapa is of primary importance to the National System of Agricultural Research. Some deficiencies and barriers to scientific and technological development in this sector are also revealed. Expenditure allocation in this area should consider the results presented in this paper.