Donors support a number of targeted food-based programs in Bangladesh that are widely credited with providing poor people access to food and improving their food security. However, inefficiency in the food distribution system may be hindering the realization of the full benefits of these programs. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) conducted a comprehensive study of the efficiency of food distribution in food aid-supported programs in Bangladesh. The study has three components: (1) food discharge at harbors, (2) the public food distribution system, and (3) food distribution to program beneficiaries. The capacity and efficiency of the food distribution system was assessed from entry ports to targeted beneficiaries. The study identified problems in the whole food distribution system, determined the level of losses, leakages, and other lapses at various stages, and recommended solutions.