Economic crisis has been activated keynesianism. The current trends of the brazilian economy make it advisable to reseat the structuralism in economic debate. This is the primary goal of this article. To do this, it discusses a “two sector” macroeconomic model whereby sought to show its relevance as a guide of thought for a series of relevant socio-economic issues, especially for third world countries. We have tried to show its consistency with certain empirical evidence and how it can be used in objective critics against economic strategies that have been proposed for Brazil.