According to the connotation of ecological civilization, construction principle of ecological civilization index system is expatiated, including integrity principle, applicability and feasibility principle, quantification principle and purposefulness principle. Based on this, a total of 23 single factors are selected from four aspects of ecological environmental protection, economic development, social progress and environmental protection consciousness. Ecological civilization index system is constructed. Weight of single factor is determined by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and comprehensive evaluation model is established. Taking Shandong Province as an example, optimized index system and comprehensive evaluation model are used to analyze the ecological civilization construction level of Shandong Province. Result shows that scores of ecological environmental protection, economic development, social progress and environmental protection consciousness are 47.24, 71.05, 37.57 and 77.57, respectively, with the integrated score of ecological civilization being 61.35, indicating that ecological civilization degree of Shandong Province is at the preliminary state of civilization. Major factors restricting the development degree of ecological civilization are ecological environmental protection, social progress and so on. At present, we should reduce the fertilizer and pesticide application, control the growth rate of population and increase investment in education.