Taking land circulation of Hebei Province, China as an example, circulation status of rural land contract and operation rights of Hebei Province is introduced. Then, sampling survey method is used to investigate the supply and demand situation of social security of 350 peasant households in Hebei Province who have sold their land rights. And supply and demand situation of social security before and after rural land transfer in Hebei Province is also analyzed. Supply of rural social security of Hebei Province is discussed from the aspects of social security supplies before and after land transfer (status of old-age security, status of rural medical security, status of employment security and education training); demand of rural social security of Hebei Province is discussed from the aspects of social security demands before and after land transfer. Finally, solving ways of supply and demand contradiction of rural social security during transference of rural land contract and operation rights are put forward, such as intensifying the financial aids for cooperative medical system, promoting the corresponding social security policy of land circulation, establishing the management, executive and supervision agencies for rural social security, and acquiring a consciousness of modern social security. It is suggested that government should set up a unified social security system covering the whole Hebei Province in order to optimize and improve the social security system for peasants.