Since 2005 the EU food industry has primary legal responsibility for food safety control. This requires new responsibilities and relationships between government and industry, and between companies. This research presents a framework for incentive systems for food safety control in supply chains. It emphasizes key elements of food safety control from multiple perspectives and provides insights for the design and analysis of incentive systems for food safety control. An incentive system combines inter-company incentive mechanisms with intra-company decision making processes to control a hazard within the legal environment. Incentive mechanisms, which consist of a performance measure and a performance reward, induce companies to use control measures. The framework can be used to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of alternative incentive systems in which companies have to cooperate with partners from other stages of the supply chain.