The present study provides an empirical investigation of the supply chain of fisheries products in Greece, through the implementation of the Structure – Conduct and Performance (SCP) methodological approach. The determinants of market performance have been analyzed considering the causal relationship of industry structure and firm conduct, and consecutively the causal relationship of firm conduct and market performance. Primary data were collected from Greek fisheries products stakeholders through personal interviews. The findings reveal that firm conduct is affected by industry structure and sequentially both have a bearing upon market performance. As concerns the impact of firm conduct on market performance, quality assurance has the most significant positive effect, which reveals the significance of product differentiation strategy in determining the market performance of Greek fisheries firms. According to the total effects on each dependent variable as a whole, the industry structure has greater impact on market performance than the firm conduct. The most important factor that affects firm conduct is international competition while the most important factors that affect market performance are those pertaining to industry structure – namely competitive advantage and C.F.P measures. The most positive and significant effect of competitive advantage that is reflected to customer demand, trade barriers and competition illustrates that it is a prerequisite to improve levels of market performance. These findings may assist all involved parties to confront impediments and develop efficient marketing strategies to compete more successfully in the global marketplace.