An analysis of the main items characterizing the agri-food system highlights the existence of a strong demand for a politically-correct decisional process. This paper analyzes the value of the agri-food sector at national level in terms of Gross Domestic Product, Value Added at basic and current prices (ISTAT), comparing data with the EU level (Eurostat). Farms’ structure and production are analyzed in order to highlight the current situation and future development of the agri-food sector. After an overview of the main structural characteristics of farms, the study focuses on a direct survey (FADN/RICA sample): in order to collect specific data an “ad hoc” questionnaire was drawn up to identify farm characteristics, productive potential and main market regulatory mechanisms. With the objective of highlighting the farmers’ point of view, a case study on an Italian region is presented to evaluate three main topics: a) sales prices: main factors occurring in the price fixing phase; b) distribution channels and commodities prices: perception of strength in terms of trade agreement; c) rules and checks: actions to enhance and increase price transparency through supply chain rings.