This paper reviews pastoral lease arrangements across Australia and considers the extent to which these affect the emergence of non-pastoral land uses. Some 44 per cent of Australia is made up of pastoral leases. The predominant use of these leases is for grazing livestock (primarily sheep and cattle). However, there is increasing demand for this land to be used for non-pastoral uses, such as tourism, farming of nonconventional livestock (such as goats, kangaroos and camels) and conservation of native wildlife. More neutral and outcome-focused pastoral leasing arrangements may better facilitate pastoral and non-pastoral land uses in the future.