Under the condition of market economy, market competition has shown unprecedented pressure on agricultural producers with family as a production unit. Agricultural producers are at a relatively weak position. Agricultural production having the characteristics of small scale can hardly adapt to market competition effectively and agricultural production is facing a huge market risk. Therefore, farmers urgently need a wide range of public services. In March, 2007, the Ministry of Finance and Huazhong Normal University investigated a total of 1000 residents in 35 sample villages, belonging to 33 towns of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Status of the supply of public services in rural areas is introduced from three aspects, which are backward service of public education, low level of public health service, and slow development of public cultural service. It is pointed out that the supply of rural public service is in serious shortage, and can hardly meet the practical needs of rural residents, rural development and agricultural production. Problems in rural public service are analyzed from the insufficient ability of government public service, the single supply subject of rural public service, and the lack of effective evaluation mechanism during the supply of public services. Finally, countermeasures for improving the supply of rural public service are put forward, such as strengthening the public service functions of governments at all levels, constructing a supply mechanism with diversified subjects, and establishing a farmer participation mechanism for rural public service supply, so that rural residents can enjoy the essential public services, develop rural economy, improve the living standards of rural residents, establish a sound social security system, ensure the smooth implementation of new countryside construction, and realize the coordinated socio-economic development between rural and urban areas.