This study provides empirical evidence about European consumer awareness, perceptions and behavior towards farmed and wild fish. The evidence is based on three empirical studies: a consumer survey in Belgium in March 2003, focus group discussions with consumers in Belgium and Spain in May 2004, and a pan-European consumer survey with a sample of 4,786 fish consumers in Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Span and Poland in November-December 2004. Consumer awareness about the farmed or wild origin of fish is rather poor, particular among lighter fish user groups. Perceptions are quite diverse across Europe. Furthermore, perceptions often contrast with current scientific evidence, in particular with respect to behalf and nutritional value where consumers express more favourable perceptions for wild than for farmed fish. Finally, perceptual differences between farmed and wild fish with a country are not always consistent across countries.