As indicated by the title, this paper is an update of Research Paper 60E. While some of the wording and material are very similar to that paper, this new paper updates nearly all figures, and also deals in more detail with selected topics. Of special focus in this paper is demonstrating, explaining the reasons for, and assessing the importance of the very high prices of food staples in Mozambique. Mozambique’s food production and marketing system faces a huge set of challenges now and over the next decade, driven by structural constraints, population and income growth, and a rapidly rising urban share of population. We examine this challenge through the lens of the country’s primary staple, maize, focusing primarily on the central and southern regions of the country.