This paper reports findings of an economic evaluation study of alternative smallholder cashew technologies to increase production. The objective of the study was to provide farm level insights to help evaluate returns to smallholders’ resources, particularly to the labor time smallholders allocate to different competing enterprises under alternative crop production technologies. Key research questions included: (a) under what conditions is it financially attractive for Mozambican smallholder farmers to expand production and improve quality of cashew nuts? (b) related to these, what are the investment decisions and available alternative technological options smallholders need to consider in order to achieve the expected cashew production increases and quality improvements? (c) What incentives and institutional support will be required for smallholders to adopt these alternative and new technologies in an environment where cashews are not the main crop?