The paper consists of three parts. The first part of the paper is a review of agricultural performance in Ethiopia over the past forty years. The second part diagnoses agricultural system performance and food security problems in Ethiopia and discusses some tentative practical strategies for promoting an agricultural transformation, and with it, increased productivity, income growth, and food security over the long run. The third part describes the general approach to promoting an agricultural transformation and food security for Ethiopia. It is conceptual and procedural. It draws from the lessons of economic history and theory applied to the current situation in Ethiopia.