Attitudes of a sample of the Australian public towards the subsistence use of wildlife by indigenous Australians and whether or not indigenous Australians should be allowed to sell wildlife and wildlife products is examined. It has been suggested that allowing such possibilities would provide economic incentives for nature conservation among local people. We explore whether those sampled believe that indigenous Australians should do more than other groups and institutions to conserve Australia’s tropical species, and whether or not indigenous Australians should be allowed to take common as well as endangered wildlife species for food. Attitudes of the sampled public towards indigenous Australians earning income from trophy hunting and from the harvesting of northern long-necked turtles for the pet trade are canvassed. We find that the positive conservation consequences of sale of wildlife by indigenous Australians could be weak, although social justice suggests that they should not be denied this opportunity.