Maize, the most important food crop in Kenya, contributes 44 percent of the per-capita, calorie intake. Increases in maize production over the past three decades have been attributed to the availability and adoption of modern maize techniques, especially fertilizer and hybrid seed. This paper estimates the rate of return to maize research to be 53 to 61 percent, and reveals that his impact was aided by complementary agricultural extension and seed multiplication and distribution programs. The paper describes the institutional framework that may have led to one of Kenya’s agricultural research success stories. It also poses challenges to the future of maize production in Kenya.