Asia’s livestock populations and production of edible livestock have risen substantially in recent years. Asia has increased its global share of livestock and livestock products. Furthermore, it has greatly increased its involvement in world trade in edible livestock products, e.g., exports of poultry meat and pig meat and imports of bovine meat and milk products. This article highlights these changes focussing on China, considers the reasons for these and their possible consequences for the environment. Future possible threats to Asia’s export of livestock products are also discussed, such as environmental and animal welfare concerns.