The current global economic crisis is helping to dispel misconceptions of neoliberalism. The moment is favorable to rescue other theoretical views. Among these are those that can be used to question the preaching in favor of exploiting the agricultural potential of Brazil as a strategy for integration into the global economy. This is the main objective of this article. In that sense, it was used a model of "two-sectors" for identification and analysis of the macroeconomic consequences of changes in parameters of the agricultural market. The results of the exercises performed served well to show objectively the misconceptions contained in some views of great presence in the Brazilian economic debate.