Globalization and competitiveness of agricultural commodities could have significant potential benefits for food security and poverty reduction in West Africa. Participation in global trade and economy is potentially important but not enough to ensure benefits at all levels of the chains and equitable distribution of income for each participant. Efficiency is key in the commodity value chain, but effective support functions and services, infrastructure, legal and policy environment are important. This paper presents the framework of value chain concept and analysis, as a guide to enhance competitiveness of commodities at national, regional or global level. The paper applies the value chain framework to a case study on mango in Benin, West Africa. The international market for mango is characterized by stringent quality requirements regarding fruit flies. This needs to be addressed as a key value chain challenge for competitiveness of the commodity in Benin and West Africa.