The Council Regulation (EC) 1698/2005 approved on 20th September 2005 was the starting point of the fourth programme of Rural Development Aid for the period 2007-2013. This communitarian programme affects Andalusia, an European region situated in the south of Spain. The authors of this paper have helped in the elaboration of the rural strategy for this region. We would specially like to point out the use of the Prospective Structural Analysis (PSA) methodology as a competent method to analyse the complexity of elements, variables and present interactions in rural zones as well as to understand variables in the present and future situation. Results obtained with the application of the PSA method to a region show the strength of this methodology in order to help the process of reflection about influencing economic and social agents in the analysed area.