Rising agricultural productivity in developing countries is crucial to ease the tension of increased population and haunting concern on food security. Nevertheless the soaring price of fertilizer and sluggish dissemination of improved seed varieties prohibit the poor to tap benefits from increased productivity. In the presence of the pressing button on food security, subsidizing fertilizer and seeds is recently voiced heavily. This study reveals that the adoption of improved maize variety in Kenya leads to higher yield than that in Uganda. By introducing livestock programs, the agricultural productivity in Kenya is sustained with a synergy between the “Green Revolution” and “White Revolution”. To tap agricultural potentials in Africa, subsidizing fertilizer is not sufficient; there exists multiple trajectories to achieve in food security, agricultural transformation and environmental sustainability.