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Abstract

A body of literature has addressed off-farm work by the farm household, but little is known about the association between off-farm work and food consumption. This paper investigates the extent to which off-farm employment by the farm operator and the spouse affects food expenditures at home and away from home. A dual treatment effect model is developed to estimate a simultaneous equation system of four food categories consumed at home and aggregate food away from home, with binary endogenous off-farm employment by the operator and spouse. Off-farm employment by farm operator and spouse both increase food expenditure away from home, while operator’s off-farm employment decreases staple food consumption at home. Socio-demographic characteristics also play important roles in food expenditures at home and away from home.

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