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The paper evaluates the household- and community-level factors influencing women’s and men’s decisions to participate in off-farm activities, either in the off-farm labor market or in local community groups, and the relationship with on-farm crop returns. Results reveals female participation in off-farm labor markets increases at higher levels of labor availability, and female on-farm work and group participation are complementary activities. Results also indicate that male labor is relatively more productive on-farm versus off-farm than female labor. Finally, the study shows that education increases the likelihood for both women and men to work off-farm, although the impact is greater for women.


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