Rapid changes in the global food and agricultural system suggest that developing-country agriculture must become more dynamic, responsive, and competitive to survive. However, without adequate measurements of the properties and performance of innovativeness in the agricultural sector, it is difficult for decision-makers to make policies and investments that promote innovation in agriculture. This paper attempts to demonstrate how innovativeness in developing-country agriculture can be measured. It does so first by identifying a set of indicators from secondary data sources that capture key elements of an agricultural innovation system, and aggregates these indicators into a unique Agriculture, Development, and Innovation Index (ADII) covering 35 developing countries. It then provides a toolkit for collecting and analyzing “systems-oriented” indicators that add more process-related nuances to ADII with both attributional and relational data. This is illustrated with data collected in Ethiopia and Vietnam in 2007-08.