In the Philippines, about 38 per cent of the population resides in rural areas where poverty remains a significant problem. In 2006, 47 per cent of all households in Bohol Province fell below the national poverty line, with the percentage even higher in upland communities. These households often exist in marginal landscapes that are under significant pressure from ongoing resource degradation and rising input costs. This paper first explores whether the adoption of Landcare practices in a highly degraded landscape has resulted in improved livelihood outcomes for upland farming families in Bohol. Second, it analyses the potential for the piecemeal adoption of these measures to deliver tangible benefits at the watershed scale. Finally, using a BCA approach, these outcomes are compared to the costs of the research and extension projects that have helped achieve them.