A livelihood index has been developed for different agro-climatic zones of India, based on the secondary data for TE 2003. Six different sub-indices obtained are indicators of Infrastructure Status, Agricultural Status, Nutritional Status, Economic Status, Health and Sanitation Status and Food Availability Status in respective zones. A total of 57 variables have been considered for this study. Finally, a composite integrated livelihood index has been developed which indicates the livelihood status of different agro-climatic zones in the country. Also, 103 districts of low agricultural productivity have been identified within low livelihood regions. The results of this study have been compared with those of backward districts identified under Wage Employment Program by the Task Force of Planning Commission of India. It is found that about 60 per cent districts identified in this study are the same as identified by the Task Force. Further, the spatial distributions of the identified districts under the study have been mapped using GIS maps and it has been observed that almost same region of the country has been found to be most backward in both the studies. The study has revealed regional disparity in the development process and has suggested to formulate appropriate policies to bridge this disparity gap.