Sesamum, once an important oilseed crop, has been loosing its importance on the cropping map of the state agriculture, owing to favourable production and marketing environment for other crops like paddy. The study has reported the trends in area, production and yield of sesamum, its relative profitability, factors affecting productivity and various constraints inhibiting its growth in the state. The area under sesamum that had declined over the years, has shown a little progress due to oilseeds development programmes, initiated by the Govt. during late-1980s. On the comparative economics front, sesamum has been found to provide lower returns as compared to paddy. The benefit cost ratio of sesamum has been found to be 1.36 which shows its profitability in absolute terms, but compared with its competing crop, it is much lower. The state average productivity of the crop has been almost stagnant over the years, reflecting inadequate research efforts for the upliftment of sesamum in the state. The regression analysis has brought out that sesamum productivity can be enhanced by spending more on plant protection measures and human labour for pesticide spray. Major biotic constraints faced by sesamum growers have been identified as diseases and pests, while lack of irrigation and drought have been the major abiotic constraints. To give a boost to the sesamum cultivation in the state, two-dimensional efforts, viz technological upgradation and effective market support are required.