The objective of this research was to analyze the effects of education, health and hospital, parks and recreation, and public welfare expenditures on poverty, focusing particularly on how these relationships change over space and time. Government expenditure on parks and recreation has been the single most effective government expenditure category over time, although the marginal effects of the government expenditure on poverty alleviation have weakened over time. Clusters of the highest marginal effects of government expenditures on poverty reduction were identified for each time period using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and analysis of local indicators of spatial association (LISA)


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