A driving factor behind pesticide regulation in Canada and the United States is the desire to protect consumers from harmful residues on food. The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) was unanimously passed by the U.S. Congress in 1996 and hailed as a landmark piece of pesticide legislation. It amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), and focused on new ways to determine and mitigate the adverse health effects of pesticides. The FQPA is different from past legislation; it is based on the understanding that pesticides can have cumulative effects on people and that policy should be designed to protect the most vulnerable segments of the population. Recent research has investigated some of the impacts the FQPA’s provisions – many of which have yet to be fully implemented – may have on growers and consumers.