This article measures the advantage granted by the European Union to different Mediterranean countries in the fruit and vegetables sector in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements. The advantage of each country are evaluated by calculating the value of the preferential margins, which compares the amount of the customs duties paid by an exporting country with the amount of the duties this country would have paid if it had not enjoyed tariff preferences. The situation of the Mediterranean countries appears to be highly unequal in terms of the advantages granted by the EU in the fruit and vegetables sector. The progress of bilateral negotiations and the export structure in each country explain the significant variations in preferential margins from one Mediterranean country to the next. These results allow us to discuss the potential impacts of a liberalisation of fruit and vegetable trade within the Euro-Mediterranean zone.