Two beef cattle production traits that affect performance are frame size and muscle thickness. Buyers pay premiums or discounts for feeder cattle with different frame and muscling. Do prices accurately reflect performance? What effect do frame and muscling have on profitability? Performance differed in some cases but not others. Backgrounding, stocker, and feedlot ADG differed little, while feed efficiency, days fed, and harvest weight varied more. There were many differences in carcass characteristics due to frame and muscling. Results provide evidence that stocker and feedlot prices are inefficient since a greater profit can be made producing one type of calf instead of another.