This study analyzed the influence of structural change on GDP convergence in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay (ABU) in the context of a Keynesian model with balance of payments constraints. Empirical evidence suggested that income and structural convergence were associated in the post-II World War period. The differences in industrial and economic policies in ABU may have contributed to explain the intensity of the process of structural change in these countries. ABU exhibited a different ability to reshape their institutions with a view to encouraging industrial transformation. The Brazilian industrial policy seems to have been more efficient in promoting structural convergence.