Findings of the first comprehensive government study of the Emergency Food Assistance System (EFAS) suggest that public and private food assistance may work in tandem to provide more comprehensive food assistance than either could provide by itself. Five major types of organizations (emergency kitchens, food pantries, food banks, food rescue organizations, and emergency food organizations) operate in the EFAS. About 5,300 emergency kitchens provide more than 173 million meals a year, and 32,700 food pantries distribute about 2.9 billion pounds of food a year, which translates into roughly 2,200 million meals. Despite substantial amounts of food distributed by the system, the EFAS remains much smaller in scale than the Federal programs. This study, which was sponsored by USDA's Economic Research Service, provides detailed information about the system's operations and about each of the five types of organizations. This report presents the study results in detail. For a summary of the results, see The Emergency Food Assistance System-Findings from the Provider Survey, Volume I: Executive Summary at http ://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr16-1. For more information on the survey methodology, see The Emergency Food Assistance System-Findings from the Provider Survey, Volume III: Survey Methodology at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/efan01008.