China's impact on world agricultural markets in coming decades will depend on many factors. Growing income and transition to modern urban lifestyles will increase demand for all foods, but demand will shift toward meat and high-value products. WTO accession may increase openness of China's agricultural trade and allow more imports. An understanding of geographic variations of consumption, production, trade, and policy is critical to understanding the vast China market. Development of transportation infrastructure and market channels will make it easier for food products to reach consumers. China's approach to biotechnology and its reform of institutions for allocating land, labor, and water inputs have important implications for agricultural productive capacity.