Many rural communities have benefited from the attraction of retirees in recent years. With the baby boom generation beginning to make retirement decisions, many other rural communities might consider economic development strategies based on attracting and retaining retirees. This report reviews the literature on the impacts (both positive and negative) of retiree attraction in rural areas and indicates which places might benefit most (slow growth or declining population) and least (rapid growth) from retiree attraction. Factors indicating local potential to attract retirees include natural and manmade amenities, proximity to cities and tourism, and past record of attracting retirees. Recent State retiree-attraction initiatives are examined, such as direct State technical assistance and marketing, the use of local self-help models, targeting previous residents, and promoting the development of planned retirement communities.