Increased consumer health concerns over ingestion of animal fats have spawned consumer research regarding effects of different degrees of leanness (marbling levels) on consumer demand. Previous research is reviewed and a recent multi-city consumer panel test is reported. Implications of the multi-city results are discussed from the viewpoint of applicability of normative consumer behavior demand theory, and implications of the findings for beef marketing structure and strategies. Suggestions for consumer panel research designs are also implied. Expert laboratory, consumer laboratory, and household panels were employed.