This study measures multifactor agricultural productivity for 23 transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe (CEECs) and the Former Soviet Union (FSUs), studied over 1992 to1999. During the reform period, almost all countries in the CEEC have shown continuous productivity improvements compared to 1992, while in more than half of the FSUs productivity was still below its 1992 levels. On the average, aggregate productivity has increased by 20.9 percent in the CEECs and declined by 4.7 percent in the FSUs. These developments reflect changes in resource use and technical progress in 1999 compared to 1992. Technological change has been slow or declining in many of the former soviet republics while contributing positively to productivity changes in almost all CEECs.