Land is the foundation for human survival and development, and all human social and economic activities are inseparable from the land as a space carrier. With the continuous development of China's social economy, China is facing new social development needs such as urban-rural integration and rural revitalization. At the same time, China starts to attach great importance to ecology and has proposed the concept that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. In this situation, the rational use of land resources, the optimization of land use structure and layout are also facing new challenges and problems, and more comprehensive consideration is required to make relevant optimization. Using the method of literature comparative analysis, from the conceptual connotation, basic theory, method model, and specific practice of land use structure and layout optimization, this paper analyzed and summarized the current research situations and problems, and finally came up with recommendations for the future research.