[Objectives] To analyze and study the reasons for the return of rural migrants in southwest China, so as to come up with effective policy recommendations. [Methods] Based on the questionnaire survey on the return of rural population in Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan, the characteristics and reasons of the return of rural migrants were analyzed. [Results] It was found that the return of rural population in the southwest China was dominated by middle-aged and young people with higher education level, and mainly from Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shanghai, etc., the time of staying outside gradually declined, and after the return, they were more willing to go outside rural areas to continue to engage in the same or similar work, and they showed stronger willingness to flow again. [Conclusions] The reasons for the return of rural migrants are diversified, mainly affected by limited welfare of medical care, education, and housing resulted from high housing price in employment places, household registration limitation, as well as the need of caring the elderly in the hometown, and returning to start an undertaking. In line with the reasons for return of rural migrants in southwest China, it came up with some effective policy recommendations.