Excerpts from the report Introduction: In this report are summarized the changes that took place on commercial family-operated dairy farms in the central northeast specialized dairy area from 1930 to 1951. Among other things discussed are changes in size of business, farm organization, production, value of investment, receipts, expenses, and net returns to farm operators. This study of costs and returns by type and size of farm in a particular type-of-farming area provides information that may be used by farmers and others in formulating farm plans and agricultural programs. It yields financial information that will be of value to prospective farm owners and to farm-loan agencies as well. It shows how the average farm of this type has changed in size since 1930 and how these changes in size, together with changing technology and economic conditions, have affected average returns to operators of such farms. It indicates the average income of representative farm operators in 1930 and in each subsequent year. Thus the twofold purpose of the report is (1) to present the significant aspects of the current situation, and (2) to show the noteworthy changes that have taken place with the passage of time on dairy farms in the Northeast.