The article attempts to theoretically analyze the concept of clusters, in particular energy clusters. The paper presents the economic evolution of the cluster theory and the current Polish approach to energy clusters. Cluster structures in Poland have been presented against a background of European experiences. It was found that the current progression of globalization prompts for saving measures, especially in the energy sector, which drives the operation of economies. The way to meet EU requirements regarding the increased share of renewable energy sources and consumption limitation of conventional resources may be distributed energy based on the actions of prosumers, which is undoubtedly manifested in energy clusters. An incentive to create energy clusters are competitions for projects supporting cluster initiatives announced by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management as the Implementing Institution under the Infrastructure and Environment 2014-2020 Operational Programme. Among 66 entities awarded the Pilot Energy Cluster Certificate, the largest number of energy clusters is located in the Mazowieckie Voivodship (10), and the least in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship (1). Barriers to the creation of energy clusters most often result from a lack of financing and poorly defined central regulations concerning the energy and renewable energy sector in Poland.