Cereal grains have been a primary source of nourishment for humans for thousands of years. Agronomic inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, water and modern seeds have a major impact on the level of cereal crops. However, yield, to a greater extent, depends on the dose of applied NPK mineral fertilization. The aim of the article is to determine the consumption level of NPK mineral fertilizers and cereal yield and their tendency to change over time, taking correlation into account. Analysis was performed on a global level. The material for analysis was statistical data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations database for the years 2002- 2017. As a result of the conducted analyzes, it was confirmed that mineral fertilization is the main factor of production that determines the food security of the world’s growing human population. However, the consumption of this factor of production is greatly varied in the world. It should also be emphasized that, both on a global scale and for most continents, there are clear trends reflecting a correlation in the increase in the use of NPK mineral fertilizers, including nitrogen fertilizers, and cereal yield level.