The aim of this paper is to estimate, as well as analyse and assess spatial diversification in human capital resources in rural and urban areas of Poland. Studies have static nature and relate to the state of the situation in 2018 year. A synthetic index of human capital resources (IHCR) was applied, based on which a hierarchy was developed for rural and urban areas, depending on the administrative division into provinces determining the degree of their diversification in terms of their human capital resources. Human capital resources were analysed in four categories, i.e. in terms of employment, education, entrepreneurship and unemployment, using data from the Local Data Bank CSO database. Research results indicate considerable regional (spatial) diversification of rural and urban areas. We may distinguish two homogeneous classes, including urban areas with a high level of human capital development, as well as rural areas with their low level. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of the so-called medium level of human capital, composed of both urban and rural areas. Particularly, observed polarization in human capital resources may in the future reduce the absorption of development impulses within both national and EU development policies.