The aim of the article is to outline problems related to the measurement and assessment of income in European Union agriculture. Research shows that measuring agricultural income, as well as assessing differences in income between EU countries are a matter of many doubts. They not only result from problems of a methodical nature, but also from specific solutions of a cultural nature (e.g. sale of a successor farm or free family transfer). The methodology used to determine income in agriculture currently used in the European Union only takes income resulting from agricultural production and the processing of agricultural products as well as other activities directly related to agricultural production into account. Other sources of farmer income are ignored. This applies, for example, to remuneration for work outside the farm, social allowances and revenues from the lease or rental of property resources. Thus, the methodology used to determine the income of persons related to agriculture prevents or at least hinders the full assessment of the income situation of farmers in the EU and in individual countries, including Poland. The current way of measuring farmer income causes certain economic and social repercussions and is often criticized. The conclusion is that there is a need to improve the methodology of measuring income in agriculture.