The U. S. farm population in 1966 and 1970 is examined in terms of race, tenure, and economic class, with the operator and nonoperator populations separately identified. In both years, the great majority of all farm people resided in the same household as the farm operator. Only about a tenth of the farm population lived in rent-free dwelling units on farms. Negroes and other racial minorities on farms were disproportionately of nonoperator status. Most farm residents lived on farms operated by a full or part owner rather than a tenant or manager, although there were some differences by race and operator status. Despite an overall decline of 15 percent in the farm population during 1966-70, population growth occurred on farms with annual sales of $20,000 or more. Farm population declined most rapidly in the South during the period. This decline is associated with the heavier rates of population loss among Negro farm residents, of whom about 90 percent are in the Southern States.