Subject and purpose of work: The main purpose of the article is to research the state of grainproduct subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex and identify the main trends in its functioning as a prerequisite for the implementation of the external economic potential of Ukraine. Materials and methods: The research used methodical tools for analysis, construction of econometric models, as well as open information sources of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Results: A set of factors (independent variables) were determined and the existence of theoretically their relationship with the production profitability of cereals and legumes (dependent variable) was substantiated. The regression equations for the investigated factors dependence were formed. The reliability of the econometric model was proved using Fisher's criterion and Student's t-criterion test. Conclusions: To increase the external economic potential of the grain-product subcomplex of the agroindustrial complex, it is advisable to focus on building rational mechanisms for managing the identified determinants of efficiency ensuring of the latter.