Agriculture in both Canada and the U.S. is going through a time of transition. The vast grain handling and transportation sector in each country is no different. The reasons for change are somewhat different across the two countries, but there are enough similarities to motivate a better understanding of the changes in this important agricultural and transportation sector. It is the goal of this research to explain as well as update the reader about the current and evolving situation in the grain handling systems in both countries. The two national rail systems are currently not very close to being integrated, but there remain signs that this could be a possible outcome from both a regulatory as well as an operations perspective. We let the reader judge for themselves where these changes will ultimately lead in this important and mature industry.