Barley is the third leading feed grain grown in the United States. Production is concentrated in the Northern Plains and Pacific regions. The main uses of barley are for livestock feed and the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. Feed use often accounts for a half or more of total use. Barley is the most important grain product used by brewers. Exports are much smaller than domestic use and are highly variable. Barley yields have steadily risen, but production costs have also increased. Government loan rates and target prices for barley are based on those for corn. Governments payments to barley growers, while relatively small, have been a significant portion of net returns in some years.