Purpose. The purpose of the article is to study and substantiate the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine based on available resources and taking into account the productivity of fodder crops and farm animals. Methodology / approach. In the course of the conducted research, general scientific methods were used, in particular, a monographic one at a complex and comprehensive study of production and export potential of livestock products in Ukraine; the calculation-and-design method was used in determining the main options for exporting livestock products by their main types and choosing the best of them; the economic-and-mathematical method was used to optimize the export of livestock products according to the selected criteria of finding the maximum value, taking into account the established technological and market variables. Results. The article investigates and substantiates the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine. Evaluation and planning of fodder resources were carried out that can be used to increase livestock production. An economic-mathematical model was developed to determine the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine based on the search for the maximum value of the value of exports, taking into account technological, economic, and market limitations. According to the modeling results, the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine, depending on the level of productivity of the resources used, is estimated at 39 to 55.5 bln EUR per year. Originality / scientific novelty. Modeling method of the optimal structure of livestock production and export of Ukraine was improved taking into account technological, economic, and market factors to ensure the growth of export potential of the industry and efficiency of the use of mobilized resources. Practical values / implications. The results of the study can be used to justify the development of those areas of livestock in Ukraine, which will ensure maximum efficiency in the distribution of fodder resources from value-added growth, which will contribute to the export potential of livestock and agro-industrial complex in general.